Impacts of Ostrich Skin Quality on Leather Jackets–Gender, Age or Diet

Lots of meat producers especially beef producers particularly in Europe and America are converting to ostrich farming because it lets farmers to make great and quicker ROI.

Ostrich farming initially began in South Africa in 1850s then gradually it was spread out to other countries especially Argentina, USA, New Zealand, Australia, Egypt, and Pakistan.

Ostrich hides; meat, feather, and eggs are highly priced items everywhere around the world or in international markets. Therefore, Ostrich farming, especially for leather, is extremely profitable due to its quality, style (unique quill patterns), suppleness and durability. In South Africa, the skin of ostrich gives 40-50% of the earnings engendered by slaughter. Later the ostrich skin is processed into leather.

Generally, Ostriches get ready for the marketplace in around 14 to 15 months with 40 eggs or offsprings and meat of about 130 lbs. Besides meat of Ostrich, Ostrich can produce 4 lbs. of feathers, 14 sq. ft of leather and the worth of Ostrich leather is greater than cowhide. A cow typically produces 113 lbs. of meat when slaughtered, with one offspring each year and the whole cow takes around two years to be ready for market. Interestingly an Ostrich can lay eggs for 30 years if not butchered for meat, leather, and feather. The average weight of an ostrich egg is about 3.30 lbs.

Typically, the egg of an Ostrich costs $30-50, meat ranges from $10-15/lb, leather at $40/sq. ft. and feather at $40/lbs. (source: https://poultry.ces.ncsu.edu/publications/)

Ostrich Leather

Ostrich Leather

Ostrich Skin

From Ostrich you can have one of the finest quality of leather. Ostrich Leather was discovered in South Africa in 1850 from Ostriches farmed for their meat and feather as an exceptional by-product. Since then it is considered one of the most exotic skins why? Ostrich leather is durable, strikingly beautiful, toughest and most flexible or pliable skin. Therefore, raising Ostriches makes sense.

In the middle of the skin, there is an area called Crown (where the Ostrich’s neck meets its body) it’s where little bumps are found or the raised points in the hide. This is the most regarded characteristics of the ostrich skin. These bumps form a diamond shaped crown on the skin of Ostrich and these are spots where feathers of Ostrich grows out of the skin which makes products of Ostrich skin unique and classy.

It is mainly used for extravagance leather products like Hermés Birkin handbags. Other famous brands like Bottega Vaneta, Gucci, Prada, and Louis Vuitton use real Ostrich leather in their products.

Hermes_Ostrich_Birkin_Bag

Real and Artificial Ostrich Leather (Ostrich Print Leather)

Ostrich Leather is exclusive, lavish; classy that’s why it is quite rare and costly. It is also consumed in various Leather products such as Leather Jackets for Men and Women, skin wallets, motorcycle or biker seats, leather furniture, wall covering, phone cases saddles etc.

Coming to cheaper replications of Ostrich Leather there is a material known as ‘Ostrich Print Leather’ used in low-quality goods or leather products or creates a replica of Ostrich leather products. The reason is, Ostrich leather products are very demanding products by consumers and it comes in the same category as snakeskin, crocodile or alligator type leather.

Moreover, when it is used in luxury products and hard to produce that makes it clearly very expensive, therefore in order to settle the demand manufacturers creates an inexpensive substitute.

Bumpy or diamond-shaped grainy texture is created by embossing the indentations into the Cow or PU Leather (also called bi-cast leather) during the tanning process with the help of rolling plate. Ostrich Print Leather can be identified easily since the man-made quill or bumpy, grainy texture is always identical, uniform or unvarying can be felt by seeing or running your hand along the leather material which makes it easy to differentiate between actual Ostrich Leather and Ostrich Print Leather.

Also, where feather grows at the top of the bumps there is a minor pore and this type of feature cannot be created easily with an embossing stamp or machine. (See also Distressed Leather Jackets and Jakets for Men)

Ostrich Leather Jackets

Quality of Ostrich Leather Jackets

Impact of Ostrich Gender

As other domesticated species, ostriches do not display the similar amount of gender difference. Ostrich skin area yield and bodyweight is not influenced by gender (Meyer et al. 2002b; Cloete et al. 1998b). Yet, the skin of male ostrich is testified to considerably heavier or thicker than female ostrich within the nodulated crown area (Cloete et al. 2004, 2006a).

Regarding traits like slit tear strength, elongation and tensile strength no gender change found when physical leather features were looked at (Van Schalkwyk 2008; Cloete et al. 2004).

Related to the skin or hide damage, it is reported that at slaughter male skin is found more damaging then female due to the fact that male being more aggressive, when raised separately. (Meyer et al. 2003a). Therefore, nurturing male and female ostrich groups together is more beneficial than separately.

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248903953_Ostrich_leather_quality_A_review)
Engelbrecht, A., Hoffman, L. C., Cloete, S. W., & Schalkwyk, S. J. (2009). Ostrich leather quality: A review. Animal Production Science,49(7), 549. doi:10.1071/ea08255

NoduleImpact of Ostrich Age and Weight

Different authors report the impact of age and expanding body weight on skin yield of the ostriches. Live weight increase as the age increase which also brings an expanded skin yield. Nodule development and physical parameters are not as obvious though with the age and added weight which has resulted in considerable discussion around the world (Angel et al. 1997; Jarvis 1998; Cloete et al. 1998b, 2004; Meyer et al. 2002b; Bhiya 2006;).

An inclination to butcher ostriches at 10 months to a year of age created (Meyer 2003) when Jarvis and Cilliers, 1998, showed that ideal butcher weight for meat was achievable by 10-12 months because of enhanced encouraging administrations. Initially, it was widely accepted that to have a good quality of leather ostriches must be slaughtered at the age of 14 months (Swart 1981) due to assumptions that Nodule shape (Swart 1981) and Nodule size (Kotzé & Holtzhausen 1990) were age-dependent.

Cloete et al. (2004) and Engelbrecht et al. (2005, 2007) later showed that both butcher weight and crude skin yield expanded straightly with expanding butcher age. Butcher weight increments by 6 kg and skin yield by 4.3 dm2 for each long stretch of increment in butcher age.
Subjectively surveyed Nodule development was likewise appeared to enhance with age, achieving a worthy Nodule size and shape from 11 months of age (Van Schalkwyk et al. 2005).

The age reliance on Nodule size and shape was affirmed by different intellects (Meyer et al. 2004; Engelbrecht et al. 2005; Cloete et al. 2006b). Nodule thickness, then again, was appeared to diminish with expanding butcher age (Meyer et al. 2004) and also with expanding bodyweight (Van Schalkwyk 2008).

Van Schalkwyk (2008) announced that there was a huge collaboration amongst age and butcher weight for Nodule estimate. The weight and period of butcher winged creatures were appeared to be puzzled and the impacts of age and butcher weight on skin attributes could in this manner not be divided precisely.

Hide/Leather thickness was likewise appeared to increment with age (Mellett et al. 1996; Angel et al. 1997; Cloete et al. 2004) and weight (Van Schalkwyk 2008). With respect to physical attributes of ostrich skins, Angel et al. (1997) showed that both elasticity and protection from grain tract (lastometer assessment) of ostrich skins were high, paying little mind to age (in the vicinity of 7.3 and 16 months). Protection from grain tract was higher than the base standard of the shoe and boot industry for every one of the skins utilized as a part of their examination, while elastic qualities were over the greatest point in the Scott Tester framework.

While Cloete et al. (2004) detailed an inclination for elasticity to increment with an expansion in butcher age and weight, consequent examinations demonstrated that rigidity was, in reality, unaffected by age (Van Schalkwyk 2008). Opening tear quality, then again, expanded with age (Van Schalkwyk 2008), while prolongation was purportedly free of both butcher weight and age (Cloete et al. 2004; Van Schalkwyk 2008).

Another imperative skin quality perspective appeared to be affected by age is skin harm (Meyer et al. 2002b; Bhiya 2006). Meyer et al. (2002b) demonstrated that the level of first-grade skins declined by 0.00196 0.00020% for every day increment in butcher age. What’s more, Meyer (2003) showed a positive connection amongst hostility and weight, which brought about more skin harm among heavier winged animals. Both weight and age along these lines impact skin harm.

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248903953_Ostrich_leather_quality_A_review)
Engelbrecht, A., Hoffman, L. C., Cloete, S. W., & Schalkwyk, S. J. (2009). Ostrich leather quality: A review. Animal Production Science,49(7), 549. doi:10.1071/ea08255

Impact of Ostrich Diet

When raising ostriches, it is very important to consider that first 6 months of ostrich life are very important. If ostriches are provided a proper balanced diet with necessary quantities of nutrients then the farmer can maximize the production of meat, leather, and feathers.

Examinations concerning the impact of nourishment on hide/leather quality just as of late began (Brand et al. 2000, 2004). Brand et al. (2000) detailed that skin yield was essentially affected by the vitality convergence of the eating regimen. Winged creatures encouraged a low vitality to eat less (9.0 MJ ME/kg DM) had littler skins than those on higher vitality consumes fewer calories.

The protein centralization of the eating regimen did not influence skin yield, though it significantly affected skin evaluating, as controlled by skin harm, because of expanded harm to skins of ostriches on a high protein eat fewer carbs (Brand et al. 2004). Notwithstanding, skin evaluating was not influenced by dietary vitality fixation (Brand et al. 2004).

As to the impact of dietary vitality content on hide or leather thickness, Cloete et al. (2006a) found that hide/leather thickness was not influenced by dietary vitality content. Crisply butchered skins from ostriches expending slims down with higher vitality fixations were, be that as it may, heavier than those on bringing down vitality eats fewer carbs (Cloete et al. 2006a).

Generally speaking, it appears that sustenance limitedly affects skin quality when ostriches get adjusted apportions agreeing to least norms for protein and vitality levels. The main finding that may warrant additionally explore is the impact of dietary protein on skin harm, as shown by Brand et al. (2000), albeit additional studies couldn’t affirm that protein levels did in truth impact skin reviewing essentially (Brand et al. 2004).

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248903953_Ostrich_leather_quality_A_review)
Engelbrecht, A., Hoffman, L. C., Cloete, S. W., & Schalkwyk, S. J. (2009). Ostrich leather quality: A review. Animal Production Science,49(7), 549. doi:10.1071/ea08255

Conclusion

Research endeavors center chiefly around pre-butcher factors that impact skin or hide quality since these are the primary factors that decide hide or leather quality. This survey compresses the distributed research accessible and gives understanding into the variables engaged with the quantitative and subjective parts of ostrich hide. Ideally, this will add to more focused future research endeavors, and in addition to a more logical way to deal with the administration of ostrich runs for ideal skin quality.

It is, in any case, obvious that a large portion of the skin quality attributes that decide the estimation of a butcher feathered creature are evaluated subjectively, after butcher, while it isn’t quantifiable on the live ostrich.

Live weight, age and development period of body plumes are markers of skin quality that can be valuable to guarantee butcher at the ideal stage for skin quality. The estimation of skin attributes on live winged creatures as a determinant of potential skin quality has, be that as it may, not got much consideration.

Hence, explore is desperately expected to recognize strategies for the exact forecast of hide quality at the purpose of butchering and of accomplishing the objective, delegate esteems for the different skin quality attributes of a particular skin. This will empower the business to better follow particular market necessities and influence the estimating and choice to process more goals.

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248903953_Ostrich_leather_quality_A_review)
Engelbrecht, A., Hoffman, L. C., Cloete, S. W., & Schalkwyk, S. J. (2009). Ostrich leather quality: A review. Animal Production Science,49(7), 549. doi:10.1071/ea08255

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Sources

[1] https://poultry.ces.ncsu.edu/publications/

[2] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248903953_Ostrich_leather_quality_A_review

Engelbrecht, A., Hoffman, L. C., Cloete, S. W., & Schalkwyk, S. J. (2009). Ostrich leather quality: A review. Animal Production Science,49(7), 549. doi:10.1071/ea08255